Exploring the Transformational Leadership Strategies Used by Islamic Education Reformers to Influence the Integration of Islamic Schools in Ghana

Keywords: transformational leadership, educational leadership, education reform, Islamic education


This study explored the leadership roles of Muslim reformers in the modernization of integrated public Islamic schools.The transformational leadership theory, through its concepts of idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, individualized consideration, and inspirational motivation, informed the inquiry and analysis. This is a qualitative case study. The sample consisted of five Muslim reformers who participated in semi-structured in-depth interviews. The interviews were complemented by observations and document reviews. The data analysis was based on the four aforementioned facets of transformational leadership: idealized influence, intellectual stimulation, and individualized consideration. The findings reveal that the Islamic education reformers used strategies inspired by the transformational leadership theory to influence the integration of Islamic schools in Ghana.



Afful-Broni, A. (2013). Theory and practice of educational leadership in Ghana (a
revised Ed). Accra, Ghana: TYPE Press.
Bari, O. (2009). A comprehensive history of Muslims & religions in Ghana. Accra,
Ghana: Dezine Focus.
Boyle, H. N., Seebaway, S.Z., Lansah, I., & Boukamhi, A. (2007). Islamic education
sector study: Ghana. Retrieved from http://pdf.usaid.gov/pdf_docs/Pnadl897.pdf.
Bravmann R. (1975). Islam in West Africa. London: the Cambridge University Press.
Clark, P. (1982). West Africa and Islam: A study of religious development from the 8th to
20th century. London: Edward Arnold.
Burke, W. W. (2010). Organization change: Theory and practice (3rd ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, IANC.
Burke, W. W., & Litwin, G.H. (1992). A causal model of organizational performance and
change. Journal of Management, 18(3), 523-545.
Creswell, J. W. (2014). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods
approach (4th ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Dantley, M. E. (2003). Critical spirituality: Enhancing transformative leadership through
critical theory and African American prophetic spirituality. International Journal
of Leadership in Education, 6(1), 3-17.
Dupuis, J. (1966). Journal of a residence in Ashanti (2nd ed.). London: Frank & Cass Co.
Dantley, M. E. (2010). Successful leadership in urban schools: Principals and critical
spirituality, a new approach to reform. The Journal of Negro Education, 79(3),
progressive integration approach. Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 22(2), 335-
Fisher, H. J. (1976). Islamic education: The politics of Qur’anic education among Muslim
traders in Western Sudan: The Sabbana experience. Canadian Journal of African
Studies, 10(3), 409-421.
Skinner, D.E. (2013). Conversion to Islam and the promotion of ‘Modern’ Islamic Schools in Ghana. Journal of religion in Africa, 43, 426-450.
Ghana Studies, (2005). 5. University of Wisconsin, Madison.
Jean-Marie, A. (1991). “Hewers of wood, Carriers of Water”: Islam, class, and politics
on the eve of Ghana’s independence. African Studies Review, 34(2), 1-26.
Gbadamosi, R. (nd.) Events in My life (Memoir). Ghana.
Hiskett, M. (1984). The development of Islam in West Africa. London: Oxford
Clarendon Press.
Hoechner, H. (2011). Striving for knowledge and Dignity: How Qur’anic students in
Kano, Nigeria learn to live with rejection and educational disadvantage.
European Journal of Development Research, 23(5), 712-728.

Jean-Francois, E. (2013). New framework for transculturally: Theories, methods,
challenges and opportunities. USA: IGI Global.
Hoy, W. K., & Miskel, C. G. (2008). Educational administration: Theory, research, and
practice (8th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw Hill Higher Education.
Iddrisu, A. (2002). Western secular education in Ghana: A progressive Integration Approach.
Journal of Muslim Minority Affairs, 22 (2).
Kobo, O. M. (2012). Unveiling modernity in 20th century West African Islamic reforms.
Boston, MA: Brill.
Kobo, O. M. (2016). Paths to progress: Madrasa education and Sub-Saharan Muslims’
pursuit of socioeconomic development. In H. Tiliouine & R. J. Estes (Eds.), The
state of social progress of Islamic societies: Social, economic, political, and
ideological challenges (pp.159-177). Switzerland: Springer International
Levitzion, N. (1968). Patterns of Islamization. London: Oxford Clarendon Press.
Loimeier, R. (2003). Patterns and peculiarities of Islamic reform in Africa. Journal of
Religion in Africa, 33(3), 237-262.
Loimier, R. (2013). Muslim societies in Africa. Indian University Press.
Lewis, I. M. (1973). Islam in tropical Africa. London: Cambridge University Press.
Mitchell, R. (1969). The society of the Muslim Brothers. New York, NY: Oxford
University Press.
Northouse, P.G. (2013). Theory and practice. (6th ed.). Sage publications.
Owusu, O. (2012). A religious life of Sheikh Adam Mohammed Appiedu (1935-2007).
Islam & Muslim Societies: Sub-Sahara Between Islamic and Africa.
Owusu, O. (2012). Islam in Southern Ghana. Germany: Lap Lambert Publishers.
Owusu-Ansah, D. (2002). Islamic education in Ghana. In Ghana Studies 5, University of
Wisconsin, Madison.
Owusu-Ansah, et al. (2013). Islamic learning, the state and the challenges of education
in Ghana. NJ: Africa World Press.
Patton, M.Q. (2015). Qualitative research and evaluation methods (4th ed.). Thousand
Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Sanneh, L. (1976). The origins of clericalism in West African Islam. The Journal of
African History, 17(1), 49-72.
Stoner, R.S., & Stoner, J.S. (2013). Leaders building leaders: Paving the path for
emerging. NewYork, NY: Routledge.
Taiwo, O. (2010). How colonialism preempted modernity in Africa. Bloomington, IN:
Indiana University Press.
Weiss, H. (2007). Begging and almsgiving in Ghana: Muslim positions towards poverty
and distress. Stockholm, Sweden: Nordiska Afrikainstitutet. Retrieved from
Wilks, I. (1966). The positions of Muslims in metropolitan Ashanti in the early 19th
century. London: Cambridge University Press.
Wilks, I. (1966). The transmission of Islamic learning in the Western Sudan. Chicago, IL:
University Press.
Wilks, I. (1986). Chronicles from Gonja: Tradition of West African Muslim
historiography. London: Cambridge University Press.
Wilks I. (1993). Essays on the Akan and the kingdom of Ashanti. Athens, OH: Ohio
University Press.
Wilks, I. (2002). Mallams do not fight the heathen: A Suwarian tradition in Ghana
Yin, R.K. (2014). Case study research: Design and methods (5th ed.). Thousand Oaks,
CA: Sage Publications, Inc.
Yukl, G. A. (2010). Leadership in organizations (7th ed.). NJ: Pearson Education, Inc.,
Upper Saddle River.
How to Cite
Owusu, K. (2019). Exploring the Transformational Leadership Strategies Used by Islamic Education Reformers to Influence the Integration of Islamic Schools in Ghana. Journal of Comparative Studies and International Education (JCSIE), 1(1), 50-72. Retrieved from https://jcsie.com/ojs/dir/index.php/JCSIE/article/view/3